History of National Cancer Institute
1920 – 1921
The history of the institute is inextricably linked with the discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. However, it seems a bit unrealistic.
On the 28th of December in 1895 he wrote an article entitled “About New Type of Rays”. He called them X-rays. The first publishing was an X-ray of his wife’s hand, which marked the beginning of the use of X-rays in medicine. The first X-ray room in Kyiv began its way in 1898 in the hospital of the Pokrovsky convent.
Up to 1909 X-ray machines were already used in N.D. Strazhesko clinic, in military hospital, in a private “X-ray Institute” and were available for doctors who had private practice.
World War I was a powerful stimulus for arising lots of questions and provoking activities for radiologists. However, not all medical institutions, especially those newly formed infirmaries near the front line, were equipped with X-ray rooms. On the 2nd of September, 1914, the initiative group of Kyiv residents created a public organization called the X-ray Commission for Aid to the Injured. The commission included lecturers and professors from Kyiv University and Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, as well as six doctors. J.J. Kosonogov was elected as a chairman of the commission. The commission took care of the problems of radiological care.
First mobile X-ray room was created in April, 1915, at the initiative of the commission. Complete set of equipment for X-ray examination was placed on a horse-drawn carriage and deployed in the premises of the medical institution which was in need of X-rays. The presence of a highly qualified physician was a necessary point for ordering the cabinet. Investigation showed the fact that the services of the cabinet had a significant value on regional medicine and its functioning was pretty successful.
8 more mobile X-ray rooms were formed for the needs of the front under the leadership of the Kyiv X-ray Commission – two rail stations and 6 rooms on horse-drawn carriages. Each X-ray track station consisted of two railway carriage (for passengers and for cargo) and was fully equipped to perform diagnostic procedures, minor repairs of the device and staff accommodation as well. However, the structure of the evacuation hospitals, lack of radiologists and poor rail links did not allow to fully exploit the significant potential of such station. As a result, this project turned out to be imperfect and inefficient.
Different parts of the X-ray machine (induction coils, transformers, etc.) which were used to create X-ray equipment were provided by the universities of Kyiv, Polytechnic Institute and various gymnasiums.
Up to the middle of 1915 the commission had 21 permanent and mobile X-ray rooms. Since 1915, the commission began publishing first journal of radiology – “X-ray News”
In 1918 on the initiative of Y. Teslenko, the Health Department of the Kyiv City and Provincial Executive Committees decided to liquidate the X-ray Commission for Aid to the Injured, which actually was no longer effective, and to establish a public organization – the Kyiv City X-Ray Aid, which worked as an independent union. Engineer Y. Teslenko was appointed to the position of director of the organization. There was a place provided for all necessities of organization on Reytarska street 22.
In 1919, the Kyiv City X-Ray Aid was transferred to another place at Shevchenko Boulevard (now the rector’s office of the National Medical University), to a room that used to be the kitchen of the mansion.
Eventually, on 15-16 of June, 1920, the Kyiv City X-Ray Aid changed location one more time and moved into building at Tolstoy street, 7 (a mansion of millionaire Tereshchenko). On 15th of June, Kyiv City X-Ray Aid was reorganized into the Kyiv X-ray Institute (KRI).
The structure and staff of the institute included:
administrative and economic subunits.
This day is considered the legal date of creation of our institute.
First, the main responsibilities of Kyiv X-ray Institute were:
Education sector of the institute was introduced in 1921. Experimental workshops for the production of improvised X-ray equipment were organized, as well as a vacuum laboratory and a glass-blowing workshop.
In 1923 reorganization of the laboratory were performed into the X-ray physics department with a physical and technical laboratory.
In 1924 institution began the usage of deep radiotherapy for cancer patients (malignant tumors of the uterus, ovary, breast, mediastinum).
In 1925 a prominent Polish scientist, Marie Skladowska-Curie, donated radium (mesothorium) drug to the Institute.
Further, the institute was renamed into Kyiv Radiology Institute with the organization of a 12-bed radiology department on the basis of the October Hospital.
In 1930 the Institute was renamed into the 2nd Ukrainian State Radiological and Radiological Institute. Oncology department with a socio-pathological department was opened in 1930.
Leading tasks of the dispensary: